Wheat products as well as rye and barley induce severe intestinal symptoms and small bowel damage in celiac disease patients. The best treatment has traditionally been a strict gluten-free diet, a difficult regimen to follow.
Probiotics may counteract the troublemaker protein called gliaden. They do this by competing for resources or by secreting metabolites which are less welcoming to gliaden.
Children with celiac disease are more often delivered by cesarean section it was found. Rates of C-sections have nearly doubled in the last decade, especially in affluent countries. This also points another finger at changed microbial populations and the likelihood of celiac disease.
Further reading on celiac disease and probiotics: