Cystic fibrosis, an inherited condition which inflicts life-threatening damage to the lungs and digestive system, has no cure. Intestinal inflammation and bacterial overgrowth are hallmarks.
Probiotics may help.
One recent study out of Israel found that probiotics reduce pulmonary exacerbation rates in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Ten CF patients were supplemented with a strain of Lactobacillus for six months. In a small study out of Spain, also using a Lactobacillus given twice daily over four weeks improved intestinal function.
Further reading on cystic fibrosis and probiotics: